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Projet

Mathématiques au service de la résilience à l’égard des changements climatiques (MS4CR)
 

Cameroun
Ghana
Kenya
Rwanda
Sénégal
Afrique du Sud
Numéro de projet
108246
Financement total
19,500,064.00 $ CA
Administrateur·trice du CRDI
Matthew Wallace
État du projet
Actif
Date de fin
Durée
60 mois

Programmes et partenariats

Les sciences mathématiques pour la résilience au changement climatique

Organisation(s) principale(s)

Chargé·e de projet:
Lydie Hakizimana
United Kingdom

Chargé·e de projet:
Sam Yalla
United Kingdom

Sommaire

Selon la Banque mondiale, les changements climatiques auront une incidence négative sur quelque 100 millions de personnes à l’échelle de la planète.En savoir plus

Selon la Banque mondiale, les changements climatiques auront une incidence négative sur quelque 100 millions de personnes à l’échelle de la planète. Pas moins de 43 millions d’Africains doivent vivre avec une possibilité accrue de sécheresses graves, d’inondations et de tempêtes menaçant leur santé et leur sécurité économique. Les scientifiques africains peuvent contribuer grandement à la compréhension de la portée et de l’échelle de ces problèmes et à l’élaboration de solutions novatrices à soumettre aux décideurs politiques et aux spécialistes. Malgré certains progrès, le nombre de scientifiques africains demeure relativement faible. Des efforts supplémentaires doivent être déployés pour renforcer le talent scientifique de l’Afrique et pour maintenir les scientifiques en poste en Afrique.

Le présent projet appuiera l’initiative À la recherche du prochain Einstein de l’Institut africain des sciences mathématiques pour créer une masse critique de mathématiciens afin de trouver des solutions aux changements climatiques pour l’Afrique. Sa réalisation se fera par de la formation, des stages au sein du gouvernement, de l’industrie et d’organisations intergouvernementales et de bourses de recherche principalement axées sur les mathématiciennes. Il appuiera également le regroupement des activités de l’Institut africain des sciences mathématiques et son expansion à l’échelle du continent, y compris en Afrique francophone.

Les anciens de l’Institut africain des sciences mathématiques appliquent leurs compétences en mathématique de nombreuses manières pour relever un certain nombre de défis en matière de développement en Afrique et pour proposer des solutions à l’industrie africaine. Tirant parti de telles réussites, l’investissement du gouvernement du Canada garantira l’incidence accrue du modèle de l’Institut africain des sciences mathématiques et permettra de réaliser sa vision pour la transformation de l’Afrique.

Résultats de recherche

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Paper
Langue:

Anglais

Sommaire

Rapid degradation of soil regulation services is a growing concern for agricultural producers worldwide, with the potential for adverse impacts on agricultural productivity, food security, and livelihoods. Yet, data integrating observations of soil nutrient and physical status with farmers’ knowledge of soil fertility is lacking, while landscape-level empirical assessments remain limited. In this paper, it is argued that a deeper understanding of the benefits and trade-offs of management practices currently employed by farmers to secure soil nutrients could help to promote improvements in natural resource management, agricultural productivity and efficiency. Using the case of the Central and Western Terai Plains of Nepal in 2012–2014, rice-cultivated soil parameters were estimated, and 354 respondents were interviewed to determine the cropping systems, soil nutrient status and risks, indigenous soil classification systems, and key biophysical, institutional, economic and risk perception factors effecting decision-making. Findings reveal farmers are acutely aware of the main causes of soil degradation and until today, these issues continue to be of critical importance. To counter this degradation, farmers employ a diversity of landscape-level practices to secure optimal crop yields and soil nutrients. However, farmers have limited access to agricultural extension services and scientific monitoring and apply fewer mineral fertilisers than previously reported. Additional investments are required to optimize farmers’ practices and soil regulation services, such as cooperation for knowledge innovation systems, public/private extension, organisation for co-management, integrated nutrient management, and private forestry on farms. The case illustrates local knowledge and incremental efforts to adapt to emerging risks remain the foundation to implement spatially targeted conservation measures and design adaptive land use plans.

Auteure(s) et auteur(s)
Thorn, Jessica P. R.
Article
Langue:

Anglais

Sommaire
Auteure(s) et auteur(s)
Henri-Ukoha, Adanna
Article
Langue:

Anglais

Sommaire

There are at least two types of ridging South Atlantic Ocean high pressure systems in the South African domain. Type-N events occur north of 40°S and Type-S occur south of this latitude line. This study shows that there is no evidence of surface downstream development in terms of the evolution of eddy kinetic energy and associated ageostrophic geopotential fluxes for both types of ridging high events. Rather, for these systems downstream development is an upper level process. The baroclinic waves associated with the ridging develop from baroclinic instability, by converting eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy. The bulk of the conversion is located at the upstream end of the waves. The downstream trough, which is the part of the wave that influences upward motion over South Africa, develops from the transport of eddy kinetic energy across the trough axis by means of ageostrophic geopotential fluxes. These fluxes are stronger for Type-S events. The absence of downstream development at the surface and the presence of it aloft demonstrates that there are differences in the underlying dynamics in the evolutions of these systems in the vertical. The evolution of eddy kinetic energy associated with baroclinic waves that occur during the ridging events is different from what has been observed for cut-off low pressure systems in the South African domain.

Auteure(s) et auteur(s)
Ndarana, T.
Article
Langue:

Anglais

Sommaire

A novel framework for acoustic detection and species identification is proposed to aid passive acoustic monitoring studies on the endangered Indian Ocean humpback dolphin in South African waters. Convolutional Neural Networks were used for both detection and identification of dolphin vocalizations tasks, and performance was evaluated using custom and pre-trained architectures (transfer learning). In total, 723 min of acoustic data were annotated for the presence of whistles, burst pulses and echolocation clicks produced multiple species. The best performing models for detecting dolphin presence and species identification used segments (spectral windows) of two second lengths and were trained using images with 70 and 90 dpi, respectively. The developed framework was designed based on the knowledge of complex dolphin sounds and it may assist in finding suitable CNN hyper-parameters for other species or populations. Our study contributes towards the development of an open-source tool to assist long-term studies of endangered species, living in highly diverse habitats, using passive acoustic monitoring.

Auteure(s) et auteur(s)
Frainer, Guilherme
Article
Langue:

Anglais

Sommaire

This study assesses the impacts of climate indices on the spatiotemporal distribution of malaria and meningitis in Nigeria. The primary focus of the research is to develop an Early Warning System (EWS) for assessing climate variability implications on malaria and meningitis spread in the study area. Both climate and health data were used in the study to determine the relationship between climate variability and the occurrence of malaria and meningitis. The assessment was based on variations in different ecological zones in Nigeria. The climatic data used in this study are dekadal precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature between 2000 and 2018, monthly aerosol optical depth between 2000 and 2018. The significant findings of this study are that rainfall has much influence on the occurrence of malaria, while temperature and aerosol have more impact on meningitis. The study concludes that variability in climatic elements such as low precipitation, high temperature, and aerosol may be the major drivers of meningitis occurrence.

Auteure(s) et auteur(s)
Ayanlade, Ayansina
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