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Where copyright is held by IDRC

Unless otherwise stated, the copyright to material on this website is held by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

IDRC permits reading, downloading, copying, redistributing, printing, linking and searching, for non-commercial or academic purposes, of any of its content, provided that credit and reference is given to IDRC and the original source page and, in the case of copying, redistribution or linking, that you inform IDRC of how the material is being used, as below. 

If you are copying, redistributing or linking to any IDRC content on this website for non-commercial and/or academic purposes, we would like to know. Please send an e-mail to with the complete URL of the content that you are using, as well as a description of use. 

Users must request and receive, at IDRC’s sole discretion, written permission from IDRC prior to making any commercial use of IDRC content on this website. Users intending to make commercial use must e-mail a permission request to Please be sure to include the complete URL of the material you are interested in using, as well as a description of intended use. 

IDRC content on this website may be freely reproduced for private, personal use. 

Where copyright is not held by IDRC

When copyright in content on this website is not held by IDRC, the copyright owner is specifically noted on the relevant page (for example, Copyright or © Name of Copyrightholder, 2005). Where this is the case, and unless otherwise noted on the face of the content, all rights are reserved by the copyright holder and users wishing to make use of the material must contact the copyright holder directly for all requisite permissions. 


The opinions expressed in copyrighted materials are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IDRC, its employees, officers, or governors.

All copyrighted materials contained within this website are for informational purposes only and do not constitute professional or expert advice or opinion in any way.  Materials are not guaranteed to be correct, up to date, or complete. By using this website, you are deemed to accept this. 

This website contains links to other websites for the convenience of users. These sites are not controlled by IDRC and IDRC is not responsible for their contents.